什么是助动词

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所属分类:少儿学英语

本身没有词义,不可单独作句子谓语。它仅仅是用来帮助主要动词构成各种时态、语态、语气以及否定和疑问结构。协助主动词完成其谓语动词“时态”功能的词,也就是说助动词是主动词的帮手。

1.助动词be的用法
助动词be主要有两个功能:协助主要动词构成进行时态(be doing);构成被动语态(be done)。否定句直接在be后面加not,疑问句将be提前。

举个例子:
She is playing with her classmates. 她正在和她的同学们一起玩。(现在进行时)
He was invited to the concert. 他被邀请去了音乐会。(被动语态)

试一下把这两句话变成否定句和疑问句吧!

否定句:
She is not playing with her classmates.
He was not invited to the concert.

疑问句:
Is she playing with her classmates?
Was he invited to the concert?

注意:be除了可做助动词协助主要动词构成进行时态和被动语态外,还可做为系动词,意思是“是…”。
如:She is a student. 她是一个学生。
否定句:She is not a student.
疑问句:Is she a student?

2.助动词have的用法
助动词have的功能:协助主要动词构成完成时态:have done
例:John has read that book. John已经读过这本书。
否定:John hasn’t read that book.
疑问句:Has John read that book?

注意:have除了可以做助动词外,还可做实意动词表示“有…,吃…”。
例:I have plenty of money. 我有很多钱。
I have already had dinner. 我已经吃过晚饭了。(其中have是助动词,had是实意动词,表示“吃”)

除此之外,have还可以做使役动词,表示“让…使…”
如:My mother has me clean the house. 我妈妈让我打扫房间。

3.助动词do 的用法
助动词do主要有三个功能:构成否定句,构成疑问句,强调主要动词。助动词do后面的主要动词用动词原形。

来看下面这句话:
Mary loves reading books. Mary喜欢读书。
你来试试分别把这句话变为否定句,疑问句,强调主要动词。

(否定句)Mary doesn’t love reading books. Mary不喜欢读书。
(疑问句)Does Mary love reading books? Mary喜欢读书么?
(强调主要动词)Mary does love reading books. Mary确实喜欢读书。

注意:do除了充当助动词,还可作为及物动词使用,表示“做…”。比如:He does his homework. 在这种情况下,变为否定句,疑问句时,强调主要动词时,仍要使用助动词do。

变为:
(否定句)He doesn’t do his homework. 他不做作业。
(疑问句)Does he do his homework? 他做作业么?
(强调主要动词)He does do his homework. 他确实做作业。

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